Elections, even if they’re haphazard, get people used to the idea of having them; it teaches people to be more politically conscious, too, which in turn gets people more concerned about their political freedoms.

Freedom of speech is a poignant precursor to democracy. Elections can however through being flawed and corrupt, disincentivise people from voting.





Lama-Rewal, Stephanie Tawa. (2011). Urban governance and health care provision in Delhi. Environment and Urbanization . 23 (2), p.563-581.

Elklit, Jorgen and Svensson, Palle. (1997). What Makes Elections Free and Fair?. Journal of Democracy. 8 (3)

Harding, Robin, and David Stasavage. “What democracy does (and doesn’t do) for basic services: School fees, school inputs, and African elections.” The Journal of Politics 76.1 (2013): 229-245

Kadt, Daniel De and Lieberman, Evan S.. (2017). Nuanced Accountability: Voter Responses to Service Delivery in Southern Africa. British Journal of Political Science.

Norris, Pippa, Richard W. Frank, and Ferran Martinez i Coma. “Measuring electoral integrity around the world: a new dataset.” PS: Political Science & Politics 47, no. 4 (2014): 789-798.

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